Click to download Orthopaedics essentials
Archive for the ‘Orthopaedics & Traumatology’ Category
The orthopedics guide is now available for download.
UPDATED VERSION APRIL 2012
However, most of the notes are based on my experience while working in Ampang Hospital, and may vary in your own healthcare centre.
Hopefully it may serve as a guide for your Orthopedic posting!
Good Luck for your next posting!
An ankle block is essentially a block of the terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. It is useful to think of the ankle block as the block of
two deep nerves
1. posterior tibial and
2. deep peroneal nerves
three superficial nerves
3. superficial peroneal
This concept is crucial for the success of the block, because the two deep nerves are anesthetized by injecting local anesthetic underneath the superficial fascia, whereas the three superficial nerves are anesthetized by a simple subcutaneous injection of local anesthetic.
1. Deep peroneal block
The finger of the palpating hand is positioned in the groove just lateral to the extensor hallucis longus. The needle is inserted under the skin and advanced until stopped by the bone. At this point, the needle is withdrawn back 1-2 mm and 2-3 mL of local anesthetic is injected. A “fan” technique is recommended to increase the success rate.
2. Post tibial block
Posterior tibial nerve is anesthetized by injecting local anesthetic just behind the medial malleolus.
Facing the medial aspect of the foot, the needle is introduced in the groove behind the medial malleolus and advanced until contact with the bone is felt. At this point, the needle is withdrawn back 1-2 mm and 2-3 mL of local anesthetic is injected.
1. Spf peroneal nerves
Superficial peroneal nerve is blocked by subcutaneous infiltration of local anesthetic over the lateral aspect of the foot.
3 Saphenous nerve
Saphenous nerve is blocked by subcutaneous infiltration of local anesthetic over the medial as pect of the foot.
It’s your first posting…you’re in the procedure room assisting your MO for the 1st time..
suddenly she yells..
MO: “Get me some orthoban, 3 rolls of POP…and some crepe bandage “
You: OMG..What buns? pee…and what crap??
To prevent such encounters, pls take some time to learn some basic apparatus used in Orthopaedics!
2. Crepe bandage
3. Plaster of paris
4. Plaster saw (aint no vacuum cleaner)
4. Zimmer splint
5. Thomas splint (lateral traction)
6. Plaster spreader
cutter (stout scissors)
CMR and POP
CMR under sedation (prepare in 5cc syringe)
* request drugs from sister or staff nurse, return ampule to sister!
1) Midazolam 1ml + 4ml H20 (1cc=1mg)
Adults give 2.5cc (half ampule/2mins) Peds : 0.1mg/kg
(antidote = flumazenil 0.02mg/kg) 1 amp
2) Pethidine 1ml + 4ml H2O (1cc=10mg)
Adults give ½ dose 2.5cc over 2 mins Peds: 1mg/kg
(antidote = naloxone: 0.01mg/kg) 1 amp
20kg = 1 cc
30kg = 1.5cc
40kg = 2cc
50kg = 2.5cc
max 2.5 cc in 2 minutes
Post POP xray
1. Radial height = 10-13mm
2. Radial tilt 11 (2-20)
3. Volar tilt 10 degrees
4. Radial Inclination = 21 -25 degrees
1. prepare 2-3 rolls POP, orthoban, prepare bucket of warm water
2. apply orthoban around hand starting distal to proximal
3. dip plaster in water until bubbles disappear
4. apply POP, starting from distal to proximal (max around hand 2 layers only)
5. smoothen the plaster and press on affected part to fix plaster (moulding)
6. make sure 90degrees (AEPOP)
7. Perform post POP Xray!!!
1. Take plaster and measure length required (from below MCPJ to cubital fossa)
2. Place orthoban, slightly longer than plaster (for folding)
3. Start layering plaster (up to 15 layers)
4. Prepare a pail of water, fold and dip plaster in water, going in at angle of 45 degrees, until bubbles disappear
5. Remove from water and squeeze lightly excess water from plaster using 2 fingers
6. Place plaster on orthoban, smoothen the plaster and fold edges of orthoban on to the plaster (sandwich)
7. Place this sandwich with orthoban contacting skin
8. Smoothen the plaster to fit limb
9. Wrap with Crepe bandage starting from proximal end to distal.
10. Secure with tape and allow to dry
1. Position patient’s hand with wrist extended 45 degrees and fingers pointing at 90 degrees
2. Measure length from DIPJ to cubital fossa
3. Layer up to 15 layers of plaster and place on slight longer orthoban
4. Submerse in water at a 45 degree angle until bubbles disappear, squeeze and place on orthoban
5. Sandwich the plaster and orthoban
6. Place sandwich, hand first, making sure the angles are kept
7. Wrap with crepe bandage
1. Start by bandaging with Orthoban, from distal to proximal, overlapping 1/3
2. Hold on to one end of plaster and Submerse whole roll of plaster in water, squeeze slightly
3. Start bandaging plaster over the orthoban from wrist to hand, then to proximal, overlapping 1/3
4. Smoothen the plaster and apply next roll. The wrist should be square shaped, and the proximal end spherical
1. Do not wet, draw, spoil POP
2. Do not put long objects inside/scratch
3. TCA stat if pain/numbness/blue